ON THE HISTORICAL IMPROVEMENTS IN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS AND THESE METHODS’ CONTRIBUTION TO LANGUAGE LEARNING
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ON THE HISTORICAL IMPROVEMENTS IN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS AND THESE METHODS’ CONTRIBUTION TO LANGUAGE LEARNING İçerik
Troughout the late dates of history to our new modern age there have been a great many methods and approaches concerning language teaching in EFL an ESL in addition to these methods an approaches also many linguists all over the word have done various researches to find more effective techniques than the others. For instance in 1880 Charles Berlitz brought out a language teaching method which is called as Direct Method’ : According to this method second language learning is similar to the first language learning in this light there should be lots of oral interaction; spontaneous use of the language no translation and little if any analysis of grammatical rules an syntactic structures. This method enjoyed great popularity at the end of nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth but it was difficult to use, mainly because of the constraints of budget, time and classroom size. Because people’s aims are different to learn a language in the next years some other methods came out. For example the out break of world war II heightened the need for Americans to became orally proficient in the language of their allies and enemies alike so a new method, “Army Method” which came to be know in the 1950s as Audiolingual Method appeared. There are some notable qualifications of this method such as dependence on mimicary and memorization of set phrases, no grammatical explanation, learning vocabulary in context and use of tapes and visual aids. Beginning in the mid-1960 s there has been a variety of theoretical challenges to the audio-lingual method. Linguist Noam Chomsky challenged the behaviorist model of languge learning, He proposed a theory called “Transformations” Generative Grammar, according to which learners don’t acquire an endless list of rules but sentence changed from an affirmative to a negative sentence, by adding not and the auxiliary verb to .i.e. “I go to Newyork every week” would be changed to “ I don’t go to Newyork every week with a fairly limited number of this transformations, according to Chamsky, languge users can form an unlimited number of sentences. After waning of this method (1989-97) David “Nunan brought out a collection of methods which were called as The Designer Methods”. One of these methods is “ suqqestopedia” This method indicates that music plays a pivotal role in languge learning. Lozanov and his followers tried to present vocabulary, reading, role-play and drama with classical music in the background and students sitting in comfortable seats. In this way, student became “suggestible”. The other method is the silent way in which it is bellived that it’s in learners’ best interests to develop independence and autonomy a cooperate with eachother in solving language problem. The teacher is supposed to be sileent-hence the name of the method. And must disabuse himself of the tendency to explain evertyhing to them. This method was criticized very severely because it was considered very harshly as the teacher was distant and, in general lines, the classroom environment was not conducive to learning. The last method in the Designer methods is “Communicative language Teaching’s in fact this is an approach not method. This approach involves more oral interaction, viewing fluency and accurency as complementary principles underpinning communicative tehchnques, in addition to this approach a new approach was brought out by Anderew Little John. (November 2001). According to Little John to teach a lanquage to a language learner well at first we should have a learner who is full of motivation. Anderew Little John visited some classes around the world to determine the role of motivation in learning a languege. At the result of this visiting he reasoned that the students who were motivated were very active in the class and also were expertise in using English effectively than the students who were unmotivated. These methods and approaches contributed very much to language learning and teaching. Thanks to them people learn languages more effectively and in a short time... We can realize this when we look around in our surroundings such as an tv the actors, actirises and writers, speakers and singers learn English and the other langua