ATTITUDE AND MOTIVATION CAN PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN SELOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
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There is no doubt that there are some important factors affecting people learning a second language. These factors may contribute to learners in the field of second language acquisition, however it can also cause some difficulties and obstacles for learners of the target language. According to Annika Hohenthal “Attitude is something individual has which defines or promotes certain behaviors.” Positive attitudes play an important role in second language gaining; they increase motivation and as a result help people to be more successful and learn more quickly. In contrast people developing negative attitudes face difficulties and severe adaptation problems in the target language (Aydın, 2002;7). If we can employ positive attitudes to ward the target language we are nearer to success than those who have negative attitudes. Another advantage of employing positive attitude is that it broadens our knowledge, in contrast negative ones may hinder us to learn a language perfectly, because it puts obstacles against language acquisition (Çekiç, 1992; 303). Attitudes and motivation are closely related subject and can not be separated each other. We can divide motivation into two basic kinds as instrumental and integrative motivation. This two kinds of motivation have got some differences. For example, if the learners learn the language just for reputation, it is called instrumental motivation. However, if the learners’ target by learning the language is to communicate with people and learn the culture of that language to be a member of that group, it is called integrative motivation (Ellis, 1991:117; Love day, 1982: 17-18). Among this two kinds of motivation, integrative motivation is more beneficial for people learning a second language, because it contributes in developing positive attitudes towards the target language (Norris, Jacqueline). For example, if the students who are well-motivated when they firstly encounter the target language, it means that they have developed a positive attitudes towards it William T.Lile States that “there are many ways teachers can help the their students become motivated. The attitude the student has towards the learning environment, the teacher, the material and towards him / herself all effect the level of anxiety” A teacher full of positive energy in the classroom will affect directly to the student’s motivation, as a result of this the students will develop positive attitudes which is something necessary for successful loaming atmosphere such a positive atmosphere will comfort the learners and they won’t be afraid of making mistakes and will participate eager to learn in the lesson.
On the other hand, culture of the learners cans influence their attitudes positively or negatively. According to Gardner, expectations of second language join with attitudes towards the target language and its culture, to make up the foundation of individual’s attitude toward language learning. That is, culture values and beliefs influence the position of a learners attitude.
The study is done to show how attitude and subject affecting attitude are important in second language acquisition. The purpose of the study is to determine how motivation and culture are related to attitude and the role attitude plays in gaining the target language. In the field of language learning, the attitude of the learner towards the target language is important because it foreshadows whether somebody will be successful in the target language or not. The study will provide the learner with the necessary information about attitude and in addition it can help avoiding negative attitudes. Became the study forms an idea in the mind of learners how to approach the target language. This study will contribute to the field of language learning to employ positive attitudes with the help of culture and motivation affecting attitude. For example, Elli’s (1997) believes that individuals, who are concentrated, will gain a higher degree of second language proficiency and more desirable attitudes.
A person way have negative attitudes consciously or unconsciously towards the target language. But this is a problem for learning language because if a person develops negative attitudes it is very difficult to motivate him/her to learn that language. So the person may think that he has inadequacies or other problems for learning language and even give it up. (carden,