The purpose of this study. Is to research how ability of language learning develops and changes over the centuries. It also tries to explain relationship between learning and teaching second language.
This study emphasizes the ways of practical strategies in foreign language learning and teaching. There are increasing evidences in people’s minds through the centuries.
In order to determine these old ideas and give new ideas to foreign language teachers and learners, this study has been done. And it will show us absences of learning and teaching field, we know that researchers have done many researches and study about this.
However, research into language learning strategies began in the 1960 s. Especially, developments in cognitive psychology influenced much of the research done on language learning strategies, the primary concern has been on identifying what good language learners report they do to learn a second or foreign language, or in some cases, are observed doing while learning a second or foreign language.
There is no single best way of teaching foreign languages. The successful language teacher will not limit himself to one method only, excluding all others. As fashions in language teaching come and go, the teacher in the classroom needs reassurance that there is some bedrock beneath the shifting sands. Once solidly founded on the bedrock, like the sea anemone the teacher can sway to the rhythms of any tides or currents, without the trauma of being swept away purposelessly. It is fun to sway to new rhythms, but as ourselves choose, not under the pressure of outsider who do not understand the complexities of our situation.
In 1966, Aaron Carton published his study entitled The Method of Inference in Foreign Language Study, which was the first attempt an learner strategies. After Carton, in 1971, Rubin started doing research focusing on the strategies of successful learners and stated that, once identified, such strategies in terms of processes contributing directly or indirectly language learning.
Background of Language Teaching
History of language teaching shows it swinging like an pendulum between extremes of method as teacher have searched for different solutions. Tempting to view language teaching methodology as a continuous upward progress through history, not yet prefect but moving towards perfection. But closer analysis of older books an language teaching reveals surprising similarities with present day methodology.
Throughout the Middle Ages Latin was the lingua franca of Europe, Before the 13th century no languages other than Latin and Greek were formally taught. Latin was an essential vocational subject for any youth aspiring to further education or to work in the public service it was the key to the world of scholarship.
Through 15th, 16th and 17th century brought in the French language, which was to become the diplomatic language of the time. Towards the close of the 18th century the French Revolution provided England with scores of first class French scholars, exiled aristocrats-all resorted to giving private lessons as a living.
In the 19th century the modern language breakthrough continued with Germany leading the way-due to the prestige of German philosophers (Humboldt, Kant and Hegel, German science and technology, literature (Goethe and Schiller), music (Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven).
A Balance of Learning and Teaching
Many studies support a balanced literacy program as appropriate for students whose first language is not English. A balanced literacy program provides a balance of explicit instruction and student-directed activities that incorporate aspects of both traditional and meaning-based curricula (Goldenberg & Gallimore, 1991; Goldenberg & Sullivan, 1994; Moll, 1988). However, there is no best way to teach English-language learners. Different approaches are necessary because of the great diversity of conditions faced by schools and the verging experiences of English learners with literacy and schooling in their first language (August & Hakuta, 1997)
Objectives And Significance Of Study
This study aims at investigating how learning and teaching processes develop through history. It reveals learning strategies of people, with time, reason and result documents. Furthermore, it investigates methods of learning methods such as cognitive, metacognative and socioaffective strategie